around 1850 BCE
Moscow Mathematical Papyrus
Ancient Egyptian mathematical papyrus
The Moscow papyrus is one of the most famous ancient Egyptian mathematical texts. It was most likely authored in the 13th dynasty and originally dated to the 12th dynasty of ancient Egypt, dating it to around 1850 BCE.
The Moscow papyrus was purchased by Egyptologist Vladimir Golenishchev in Thebes in 1892 or 1893. The papyrus contains 25 problems in no particular order, and its contents provide less detail than present in the Rhind papyrus. The papyrus is best known for its geometry problems, including the surface area and volume of a frustum and the surface area of a hemisphere or half-cylinder, while its remaining problems are more prosaic.