around 2500–2300 BCE
Burnt City Dice
Ancient elongated dice from Shahr-e Sukhteh
Shahr-e Sukhteh (meaning "The Burnt City") is an archaeological site in eastern Iran corresponding to a Bronze Age urban settlement. Shahr-e Sukhteh was one of the world's largest early cities. It appeared around 3200 BCE and burned down three times before finally being abandoned in 1800 BCE.
These ancient dice are among the world's oldest known and were excavated from Shahr-e Sukhteh together with a wooden backgammon-like gaming board. Four wooden dice and other pieces were found in grave 731. The dice are parallelepipeds and display numeration from 1 to 4 along the long faces following a variable order. They are estimated to have been crafted around 2500–2300 BCE.